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The 3rd chapter of Shareerasthanam of Ashtanga Hridayam is named as Angavibhagasharira Adhyayah. This chapter deals with the explanation of different parts of the body.

The topics covered in this chapter include –

–        Anga-Pratyanga – major and minor parts
–        Bhuta Gunas – qualities of five elements of nature
–        Bhautika Sarira – Bhuta-body relation
–        Matru pitru bhava – maternal and paternal derivations
–        Satmyadi bhava – derivations from habituation etc
–        Rasaja bhava – derivations from maternal nutrition
–        Satvadi guna Bhava – derivatives from primary quantities
–        Satpa tvaca – the seven skins
–        Sapta kala – seven membranes
–        Saptaa asaya – seven containers
–        Kosthanga – viscera
–        Jivita dhama – seats of life
–        Jala-Kandaradi – net-like structures, tendons etc
–        Asthi (bones) – Snayu (tendons) – Pesi (muscles)
–        Sira – veins
–        Avedhya sira – veins not to be cut for venesection
–        Sira vibhaga – classification of veins
–        Signs and symptoms of the veins carrying doshas
–        Dhamanis – arteries and their course
–        Bahyasrotas – external orifices, channels
–        Abhyantra Srotas – internal channels
–        Characteristic features of channels
–        Factors vitiating and contaminating the channels of the body
–        Srota Dusti lakshanas – signs of abnormalities of the channels
–        Simily for nourishment of the body by channels
–        Signs of injury to the channels and their management
–        Jatharagni – fire in the stomach and duodenum which aids digestion of food
–        Jatharagni – fire in the stomach and duodenum which aids digestion of food
–        Aharapaka – digestive processes
–        Formation of kapha, pitta and vata by foods
–        Dhatu agni – Fires of elements
–        The elemental portions of the food nurturing their respective elemental tissues in the body
–        Formation of essence and waste portions of food after its digestion
–        Sequential formation of tissues from one another
–        Tissue excreta
–        Continued cyclic nutrition of tissues
–        Circulation of rasa
–        Jatharagni pradhanayam – importance of gastric fire
–        Jatharagni bheda – kinds of gastric fire
–        Qualities of four kinds of Jatharagni
–        Trividha Bala – three kinds of strength
–        Trividha Desa – three Kinds of habitat
–        Dhatu Pramana – quantity of tissues
–        Deha Prakrti – human constitution / temperament 
–        Vata Prakrti – Nervous temperament
–        Pitta Prakrti – bilious temperament
–        Kapha Prakrti – kapha temperament
–        Birth constitution with predominance of two and three doshas
–        Vayah – age
–        Sarira Laksana – physiognomy
–        Signs of organs and parts of the body depicting longevity and good health
–        Reasons for enumerating eight types of excellences|
–        Qualities of people enriched with sattva, raja and tamo qualities

Pledge by the author(s)

अथातोऽङ्गविभागं शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः।
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः।।गध्यसूत्रे॥२॥

After having offered prayers to the God, henceforth we are going to explain the chapter pertaining to the development of the embryo thus say (pledge) atreya and other sages.

Anga-Pratyanga – major and minor parts

शिरोऽन्तराधिर्द्वौबाहू सक्थिनीतिसमासतः।
षडङ्गमङ्गं प्रत्यङ्गं तस्याक्षिहृदयादिकम्॥१॥

Head, trunk, two arms and two legs – are in brief, the six anga (major parts) of the body; eyes, heart etc. are the pratyanga (minor parts) attached to them

Bhuta Gunas – qualities of five elements of nature

शब्दःस्पर्शश्चरूपं च रसोगन्धः क्रमाद्गुणाः।

खानिलाग्न्यब्भुवां एकगुणवृद्ध्यन्वयः परे॥२॥

Shabda (sound), sparsha (touch), rupa (form), rasa (taste) and gandha (smell) are the qualities respectively of kha (akasa), anila (vayu), agni (tejas), ambu (ap) and bhu (prthvi) increase of one quality more is found in each succeeding (bhuta).

Bhautika Sarira – Bhuta-body relation

तत्रखात्खानि देहेऽस्मिन्श्रोत्रं शब्दोविविक्तता।

वातात्स्पर्श त्वगुच्छ्वासावह्नेर्दृग्रूपपक्तयः॥३॥

आप्याजिह्वा रसक्लेदाघ्राणगन्धास्थि पार्थिवम्।

In this human body, from akasha bhuta the orifices, the ears, the sound and emptiness / free space are produced from vayu bhuta, the touch, the skin and respiration are formed. From agnibhuta the eyes, vision, and digestion are generated. From ap bhuta the tongue, taste, fluids and moisture are produced. From prthvi bhuta, the nose, the smell and the bones are produced.

Matr pitr bhava – maternal and paternal derivations

मृद्वत्र मातृजं रक्तमांसमज्जगुदादिकम्॥४॥

पैतृकं तु स्थिरं शुक्रधमन्यस्थिकचादिकम्।

चैतनं चित्तमक्षाणि नानायोनिषु जन्म च॥५॥

Soft parts such as blood, muscle, marrow, the rectum etc., are matrja (derived from the mother); those which are static (compact hard) such as the semen, arteries, bones, hairs etc, are pitrja (derived from the father) from cetana (atma- soul) the mind, the sense organs and birth (ordeal of being born) in various species of living beings are developed.

Satmyadi bhava – derivations from habituation etc

सात्म्यजं त्वायुरारोग्यमनालस्यं प्रभाबलम्।

From satmya (habituation) the life (duration of life), health, enthusiastic activity, radiance (brilliance in all activities, colour and complexion etc) and strength (physical and mental) are developed.

Rasaja bhava – derivations from maternal nutrition

रसजं वपुषो जन्मवृत्तिर्वृद्धिरलोलता॥६॥

From rasa (nutrient portion of food), the body (formation and development of foetus), its maintenance, growth and non-attachment (to sensual activities) are seen.

Satvadi guna Bhava – derivatives from primary quantities

सात्विकं शौचमास्तिक्यं शुक्लधर्मरुचिर्मतिः।

राजसं बहुभाषित्वं मानक्रुद्दम्भमत्सरम्॥७॥

तामसं भयमज्ञानं निद्राऽऽलस्यं विषादिता।

इति भूतमयोदेहः।
Cleanliness, belief in Gods, inclination to follow the path of pure virtue (righteousness) are satvika (derivations from satvaguna); talkativeness, pride, anger, vanity and jealousy are rajasa – (derivations from rajoguna); fear, ignorance, sleep, laziness and grief are tamasa – (derivations from tamoguna) thus the body is composed of the bhutas

Satpa tvacha – the seven skins

तत्र सप्तत्वचोऽसृजः॥८॥

पच्यमानात्प्रजायन्ते क्षीरात्सन्तानिका इव।

The body has seven layers of skin are produced during the cooking (metabolic heat activity) of blood just as the layer of scum, during the cooking of milk.

Sapta kala – seven membranes

धात्वाशयान्तरक्लेदो विपक्वः स्वं स्वमूष्मणा॥९॥

श्लेष्म स्नाय्वपराच्छन्नः कलाख्यः काष्ठसारवत्।

ताः सप्त

The moisture present inside the dhatu (tissue) and asayas (organs) processessed by their own heat (of each dhatu and asaya) become transformed into structures called kala, just as the essence gets formed in the trees these are covered with slesman (kapha), snayu (tendenous waxy material) or apara (chorion / placenta); these are seven.

Saptaa asaya – seven containers

सप्तचाधारा रक्तस्याद्यः क्रमात्परे॥१०॥

कफामपित्तपक्वानां वायोर्मूत्रस्यचस्मृताः।

गर्भाशयोऽष्टमः स्त्रीणां पित्तपक्वाशयान्तरे॥११॥

Adhara (asaya) – containers/recepticles- are seven; the first is of rakta (blood), followed by smṛtāḥ ca kapha āma pitta pakvānāṃ vāyoḥ mūtrasya – those of kapha, ama (undigested food), pitta, pakva (digested food), vayu (vata) and mutra (urine); in women garbhashaya (uterus), the eight situated in between pittasaya and pakvasaya

Kosthanga – viscera

कोष्ठाङ्गानि स्थितान्येषु हृदयं क्लोमफुप्फुसम्।

यकृत्प्लीहोण्डुकं वृक्कौ नाभिडिम्बान्त्रवस्तयः॥१२॥

Koshthanga (organs inside the chest and abdomen) are the hrdaya (heart), kloma, phuphphusa (lungs), yakrit (liver), phiham (spleen), unduka (caecum), two vrikka (kidneys), nabhi (umbilicius), dimbha (uterus), antra (intestines) and basti (urinary bladder)

Jivita dhama – seats of life

दशजीवित धामानि शिरोरसनबन्धनम्।

कण्ठोऽस्रं हृदयं नाभिर्बस्तिः शुक्रौजसीगुदम्॥१३॥

The ten seats of life are head, tongue throat, blood, heart, navel, urinary bladder, semen, ojus and rectum

Jala-Kandaradi – net-like structures, tendons etc.

जालानिकण्डराश्चाङ्गे पृथक्षोडशनिर्दिशेत्।

षट्कूर्चाः सप्तसीवन्यो मेढ्रजिह्वाशिरोगताः॥१४॥

शस्त्रेणताः परिहरेच्चतस्रो मांसरज्जवः।

चतुर्दशास्थिसङ्घाताः सीमन्ताद्विगुणानव॥१५॥

There are in the body sixteen jala (net like structures) and kandra (big tendons) separately; six kurca (brush- like structures), seven sivani (sutures, raphae) located in the penis, tongue and head (skull), these should be spared from sharp instruments; there are four mamsa rajju (muscular ropes), fourteen asthisanghata (confluence of bones), simanta (border lines, dividing lines , demarcations) are twice of nine i.e. eighteen in number

Asthi (bones) – Snayu (tendons) – Pesi (muscles)

अस्थ्नां शतानिषष्टिश्चत्रीणि दन्तनखैः सह।

धन्वन्तरिस्तु त्रीण्याह सन्धीनां च शतद्वयम्॥१६॥

दशोत्तरं सहस्रे द्वे निजगादात्रिनन्दनः।

स्नान्नां नवशतीपञ्च पुंसां पेशीशतानितु॥१७॥

अधिकाविंशतिः स्त्रीणां योनिस्तनसमाश्रिताः।

Three hundred and sixty is the number asthi (bones) inclusive of teeth and nails Dhanvantari (divodasa) says they are three hundred only the number of sandhi (bony joints) is two hundred and ten Atri’s son (Krisna Atreya) says they are two thousand snayu (tendons) are nine hundred, pesi (muscles) are five hundred, in men and twenty more in women located in the vaginal tract and breasts

Sira – veins

दशमूलसिराहृत्स्थास्ताः सर्वं सर्वतोवपुः॥१८॥

रसात्मकं वहन्त्योजस्तन्निबद्धं हि चेष्टितम्।

स्थूलमूलाः सुसूक्ष्माग्राः पत्ररेखाप्रतानवत्॥१९॥

भिद्यन्तेतास्ततः सप्तशतान्यासां भवन्ति तु।

Mula sira (root veins) are ten located in (attached to) the hrdaya (heart), they transport the rasa (first fluid tissue) and ojas (essence of tissues) to the whole body; on them all the activities of the body depend they are big at their roots and very small at tips, and appear like the lines of a leaf; thus divided they become seven hundred (in number)

Avedhya sira – veins not to be cut for venesection

तत्रैकैकं च शाखायां शतं तस्मिन्नवेधयेत्॥२०॥

सिरां जालन्धरां नामतिस्रश्चाभ्यन्तराश्रिताः।

षोडशद्विगुणाः श्रोण्यां तासां द्वे द्वे तुवङ्क्षणे॥२१॥

द्वे द्वे कटिकतरुणे शस्त्रेणाष्टौस्पृशेन्नताः।

पार्श्वयोः षोडशैकैकामूर्ध्वगां वर्जयेत्तयोः॥२२॥

द्वादश द्विगुणाः पृष्ठेपृष्ठवंशस्यपार्श्वयोः।

द्वे द्वे तत्रोर्ध्वगा मिन्यौन शस्त्रेणपरामृशेत्॥२३॥

पृष्ठवज्जठरे तासां मेहनस्योपरिस्थिते।

रोमराजीमुभयतो द्वे द्वे शस्त्रेणनस्पृशेत्॥२४॥

चत्वारिंशदुरस्यासां चतुर्दशनवेधयेत्।

स्तनरोहिततन्मूल हृदये तु पृथग्द्वयम्॥२५॥

अपस्तम्भाख्ययोरेकां तथाऽपालापयोरपि।

ग्रीवायां पृष्ठवत्तासां नीलेमन्ये कृकाटिके॥२६॥

विधुरे मातृकाश्चाष्टौ षोडशेति परित्यजेत्।

हन्वोः षोडशतासां द्वे सन्धिबन्धनकर्मणी॥२७॥

In each extremity the (number of) siras (veins) are one hundred; out of them, the four viz, one by name Jalandhanra and three situated deep insides, should not be cut (for performing venesection) in the sroni (pelvis) these are twice the sixteen i.e. thirty-two siras of them, two each in both vanksana (groins), two each in both katikataruna (crest of pelvic bone); these eight should not be touched by the sharp instrument (of vensection). In the parsva (flanks) there are sixteen; of them one on either side going upwards should be avoided in the prsrtha (back) these are two times of twelve i.e. twenty-four in number on either side of the virtual column; among them two watch on either side going upwards should not be touched by the sharp instruments in the jathara (abdomen) their number is same as in the back; out of them two on either side located above the penis on either side of the line of hair should be touched by the sharp instrument in the uras (chest) there are forty; out of them the fourteen viz., two each situated at stanarohita (upper border of the best), stanamula (lower border of the breast), hrdaya (region of the heart), one each at apasthambha (left and right borders of the chest) and apalapa (left and right borders of back) should not be cut in the griva (neck) their number is same as in the back; among them, sixteen viz, two nila, two manya, two krkatika, two vidhura, and eight matraka – should be avoided in the hanu (lower Jaw) there are sixteen; of them, the two which binds the joints (of the lower jaw with the skull, should not be cut)

Avedhya sira – veins not to be cut for venesection

जिह्वायां हनुवत्तासामधो द्वे रसबोधने।

द्वेचवाचः प्रवर्तिन्यौनासायां चतुरुत्तरा॥२८॥

विंशतिर्गन्धवेदिन्यौ तासामेकां च तालुगाम्।

षट्पञ्चाशन्नयनयोर्निमेषोन्मेषकर्मणी॥२९॥

द्वेद्वे अपाङ्गयोर्द्वे च तासां षडितिवर्जयेत्।

नासानेत्राश्रिताः षष्टिर्ललाटे स्थपनीश्रिताम्॥३०॥

तत्रैकां द्वे तथाऽऽवर्तौ चतस्रश्चकचान्तगाः।

सप्तैवं वर्जयेत्तासां कर्णयोः षोडशात्रतु॥३१॥

द्वे शब्दबोधने शङ्खौ सिरास्ता एवचाश्रिताः।

द्वे शङ्खसन्धिगेतासां मूर्ध्नि द्वादशतत्रतु॥३२॥

एकैकां पृथगुत्क्षेप सीमन्ताधिपतिस्थिताम्।

इत्यवेध्यविभागार्थं प्रत्यङ्गं वर्णिताःसिराः॥३३॥

अवेध्यास्तत्रकार्त्स्न्येनदेहेऽष्टानवतिस्तथा।

सङ्कीर्णाग्रथिताः क्षुद्रावक्राः सन्धिषुचाश्रिताः॥३४॥

In the Jihva (tongue) their number is same as in lower jaw (sixteen) ; of them two lower ones which make for taste perception and two which make for speech (should not be cut) in the nose there are twenty four; of them, the two responsible for smell perception and one in the palate should not be cut in the eyes they are fifty six; of them, six viz., two each which do the closing and opening of the eyelids; the two situated at the apanaga (the outer angle of the each eye) these six should be avoided among the veins located in the region of nose and eyes, in the forehead there are sixty; out of them, the one located at the sthapani, two at the avarta, four at the border line of the hair – these seven should be avoided in the ears there are sixteen; of them two responsible for perception of sound should be avoided in the sankha (temples) also the veins of the same number (sixteen) exist; of them, two situated at the joints of the temples should not be cut in the head there are twelve; of them, one each located at the utksepa (at the borderline of hairs), simanta (sutures in the skull) and adhipati (bregma in the centre of the skull) (total eight) should not be cut thus, to mention the veins which should not be cut, the veins of the sub organs (head, middle portion of the body and limbs) have been described among these siras (veins) in the body, in total, ninety-eight veins (which should not be cut have been specified) also, (apart from these the siras) which are fused together, formed into lumps, very minute, curved and located inside joints also should not be cut (for bloodletting)

Sira vibhaga – classification of veins

तासां शतानां सप्तानां पादोऽस्रंवह ते पृथक्।

वातपित्तकफैर्जुष्टं शुद्धं चैवं स्थितामलाः॥३५॥

शरीरमनुगृह्णन्ति पीडयन्त्यन्यथापुनः।

Out of the seven hundred siras (veins) one fourth of them (one hundred seventy-five) carry blood vitiated by vata, pitta, kapha and pure (unvitiated) blood separately the mala (dosa), remaining so (within their normal state) sustain the body, while, on the other hand (in their abnormal state) they cause troubles to the body

Signs and symptoms of the veins carrying doshas

तत्रश्यावारुणाः सूक्ष्माः पूर्णरिक्ताः क्षणात्सिराः॥३६॥

प्रस्पन्दिन्यश्च वातास्रं वहन्ते पित्तशोणितम्।

स्पर्शोष्णाः शीघ्रवाहिन्यो नीलपीताः कफं पुनः॥३७॥

गौर्यः स्निग्धाः स्थिराः शीताः संसृष्टं लिङ्गसङ्करे।

गूढाः समस्थिताः स्निग्धारोहिण्यः शुद्धशोणितम्॥३८॥

Veins which are bluish-red in colour, small (sometime) full and sometime empty momentarily and having throbbing (pulsations) are carrying blood mixed with Vata; those which are warm to touch; of quick pace (rate), bluish-yellow in colour are carrying blood mixed with pitta; those which are white in colour, smooth, static (immovable, firm, hard) and cold to touch are carrying blood mixed with kapha; mixture of these signs indicate mixture of dosas those which are deep seated, evenly placed, smooth and of slight red colour are carrying pure blood (unmixed with the dosas).

Dhamanis – arteries and their course

धमन्यो नाभि सम्बद्धाविंशतिश्चतुरुत्तरा।

ताभिः परिवृतानाभिश्चक्रनाभिरिवारकैः॥३९॥

ताभिश्चोर्ध्वमधस्तिर्यग्देहोऽयमनुगृह्यते।

Dhamanis, attached to the nabhi (umbilicus) are twenty-four

surrounded by them, the umbilicus resembles the axle of a wheel surrounded by spokes. By these (dhamanis) spreading upwards, downwards and sidewards – the entire body is maintained (with supply of nourishment)

Bahyasrotas – external orifices, channels

स्रोतांसि नासिके कर्णौ नेत्रे पाय्वास्यमेहनम्॥४०॥

स्तनौ रक्तपथश्चेति नारीणामधिकं त्रयम्।

Srotas (orifices, channels, passages) are: the two in the nose, two in the ears, two in the eyes, one of the rectum, one of the mouth and one of the urethra; in women ; there are three more, two in the breasts and one for the passage of menstrual blood.

Abhyantra Srotas – internal channels

जीवितायतनान्यन्तः स्रोतां स्याहुस्त्रयोदश॥४१॥

प्राणधातुमलाम्भोन्नवाहीनि  अहितसेवनात्।

तानि दुष्टानि रोगायविशुद्धानि सुखाय च॥४२॥

Srotas which are internal are said to be thirteen and are seats of the life they are, one each of prana (respiration), the dhatus (the seven basic tissues), the malas (urine, stool, sweat), ambu (water) and anna (food) these getting vitiated by indulgence in unsuitable (foods and activities) gives rise to diseases; when normal result in health.

Characteristic features of channels

स्वधातु समवर्णानि वृत्तस्थूलान्यणूनि च।

स्रोतांसि दीर्घाण्याकृत्या प्रतान सदृशानिच॥४३॥

These channels possess the same colour as their dhatu (tissue in which they are present), are circular, big (wide) or small (minute), long and resemble the net-like lines of a leaf in shape

Factors vitiating and contaminating the channels of the body

आहारश्च विहारश्च यः स्याद्दोषगुणैःसमः।

धातुभिर्विगुणोयश्च स्रोतसां स प्रदूषकः॥४४॥

Foods and activities which possess qualities similar with those of the dosas and dissimilar with those of the dhatus cause vitiations of the srotas.

Srota Dusti lakshanas – signs of abnormalities of the channels

अतिप्रवृत्तिः सङ्गो वा सिराणां ग्रन्थयोऽपिवा।

विमार्गतो वा गमनं स्रोतसां दुष्टिलक्षणम्॥४५॥

Atipravrtti (increase of structure or function), sanga (decrease of structure or function), siragranthi (formation of lumps, tumour, thickening etc in the channels) and vimargagamana (movement in unusual or wrong paths) are the sroto dusti laksana (signs of abnormality of srotas).

Simily for nourishment of the body by channels

बिसानामिव सूक्ष्माणि दूरं प्रविसृतानिच।

द्वाराणि स्रोतसां देहेरसोयैरुपचीयते॥४६॥

Just like the minute orifices of the lotus stem are spread out throughout the stem, the openings of the srotas i.e. channels (are also spread out throughout the body), (through these orifices) the body gets nourished by the the rasa (i.e. the nutritive juice derived after the food gets digested in the stomach).

Signs of injury to the channels and their management

व्यधेतुस्रोतसां मोहकम्पाध्मानवमिज्वराः।

प्रलाप शूल विण्मूत्ररोधा मरणमेव वा॥४७॥

स्रोतोविद्धमतो वैद्यः प्रत्याख्याय प्रसाधयेत्।

उद्धृत्य शल्यं यत्नेन सद्यःक्षत विधानतः॥४८॥

If the channels are injured, delusion / loss of consciousness, tremors, flatulence, vomiting, fever, delirium, pain in the abdomen, suppression of faeces and urine and even death may occur hence the physician should first inform the relatives of the person who has injury to srotas, about the incurability and then do treatment by removing the foreign body with all efforts and treat the wound in the same way as treating a recent / fresh wound.

Jatharagni – fire in the stomach and duodenum which aids digestion of food

अन्नस्य पक्ता पित्तं तु पाचकाख्यं पुरेरितम्।

दोष धातु मलादीनामूष्मेत्यात्रेय शासनम्॥४९॥

Pacaka pitta, as described earlier (in chapter 12 of sutra-sthana) is the one that cooks (digests) the food; Atreya proclaims that there is usma (heat), in (each one of) the dosa, dhatu and mala

Jatharagni – fire in the stomach and duodenum which aids digestion of food

तदधिष्ठानमन्नस्य ग्रहणाद्ग्रहणीमता।

सैव धन्वन्तरिमते कलापित्तधराह्वया॥५०॥

आयुरारोग्य वीर्यौजो भूतधात्वग्निपुष्टये।

स्थितापक्वाशयद्वारि भुक्तमार्गार्गले वसा॥५१॥

भुक्तमामाशयेरुद्ध्वा साविपाच्यनयत्यधः।

बलवत्यबलात्वन्नमाममेव विमुञ्चति॥५२॥

ग्रहण्या बलमग्निर्हि स चापि ग्रहणीबलः।

दूषितेऽग्नावतो दुष्टा ग्रहणीरोगकारिणी॥५३॥

यदन्नं देहधात्वोजो बलवर्णादिपोषणम्।

तत्राग्निर्हेतुराहारान्न ह्यपक्वाद्रसादयः॥५४॥

Its (pacaka pitta vis a vis jatharagni) seat is grahani duodenum) so called because it withholds the food (for a certain time inside the amasaya i.e. stomach to facilitate digestion) in the opinion of Dhanvantari it is the kala known as Pittadhara situated at the entrance of the pakvasaya (intestines) and acting as a bolt to the door of pathway of food, it is responsible for duration of life (life span), health, valour, ojas (essence of all the tissues), strength of (all) the bhutagni (fire related to the elements) and dhatvgni (fire located in the tissues) when it (grahani – duodenum) is strong, it with-holds the ingested food in the amasaya (stomach), cooks it well and then brings it down [into the pakvasaya (intestines)] the weak (duodenum) one will eliminate (push down the food) in an undigested (ama – unformed, unprocessed) state itself the strength of the grahani is from agni (the digestive fire) itself, and itself (strength of agni) is from grahani; when the agni undergoes vitiation, the grahani also gets vitiated and produces diseases that food which bestows nourishment to the dhatus of the body, ojas, strength, colour (and complexion) etc., is really made so by the agni, which is the cause for its digestion; rasa and others (tissues) do not get formed and nourished by uncooked (undigested) food

Aharapaka – digestive processes

अन्नं कालेऽभ्यवहृतं कोष्ठं प्राणानिलाहृतम्।

द्रवैर्विभिन्न सङ्घातं नीतं स्नेहेन मार्दवम्॥५५॥

सन्धुक्षितः समानेन पचत्यामाशयस्थितम्।

औदर्योऽग्निर्यथा बाह्यः स्थालीस्थं तोयतण्डुलम्॥५६॥

The food ingested at the proper time, is drawn into the alimentary tract by the pranavata, its hard / big masses split and made soft by the unctuousness of the liquid; then the audaryagni (jatharagni -digestive fire) activated by Samanavata cooks the food present in the Amasaya (stomach) just like external fire cooks the rice and water kept in the pot

Formation of kapha, pitta and vata by foods

आदौ षड्रसमप्यन्नं मधुरी भूतमीरयेत्।

फेनीभूतं कफं, यातं विदाहादम्लतां ततः॥५७॥

पित्तमामाशयात्कुर्याच्च्यवमानं च्युतं पुनः।

अग्निनाशोषितं पक्वं पिण्डितं कटुमारुतम्॥५८॥

Although the food consists of all the six tastes, it first becomes madhura (sweet) and gives rise to the production of kapha, of frothy nature ; next undergoing further cooking it becomes amla (sour) and gives rise to the production of pitta; then gets expelled from the amasaya (stomach) after getting expelled, the food digested by and made dry by the action of fire becomes dense / lump like and katu (pungent) and gives rise to the production of vata

Dhatu agni – Fires of elements

भौमाप्याग्नेयवायव्याः पञ्चोष्माणः सनाभसाः।

पञ्चाहार गुणान्स्वान्स्वान्पार्थिवादीन्पचन्त्यनु॥५९॥

The five usma (agni- fire) viz, bhauma, apya, agneya, vayavya and nabhasa (fire pertaining to earth, water, fire, air and ether elements respectively), cook the parthiva and other qualities of foods; each of its own kind, respectively

The elemental portions of the food nurturing their respective elemental tissues in the body

यथास्वं ते च पुष्णन्ति पक्वाभूतगुणान्पृथक्।

पार्थिवाः पार्थिवानेवशेषाः शेषांश्चदेहगान्॥६०॥

They (qualities of food pertaining to earth element etc) after undergoing cooking, nourish the qualities of the elements in the body individually and accordingly parthiva qualities (of the food) nourish parthiva qualities (materials) of the body only, and the rest the others (respectively)

Formation of essence and waste portions of food after its digestion

किट्टं सारश्च तत्पक्वमन्नं सम्भवतिद्विधा।

तत्राच्छं किट्टमन्नस्य मूत्रं विद्याद्घनम्शकृत्॥६१॥

The digested food (after both phases of digestion) gets divided into two parts viz, kitta (waste) and sara (essence) the fine (liquid) portion of waste product of food becomes mutra (urine) and the solid portion becomes sakrt (faeces)

Action of seven tissue fires on the essence of the food

सारस्तु सप्तभिर्भूयो यथास्वं पच्यतेऽग्निभिः।

The sara (essence) undergoes further cooking (transformation) by the seven agni of their own, (dhtvagni present in each dhatu).

Sequential formation of tissues from one another

रसाद्रक्तं ततोमांसं मांसान्मेदस्ततोऽस्थि च॥६२॥

अस्थ्नोमज्जा ततः शुक्रं शुक्राद्गर्भः प्रजायते।

From rasa (lymph), rakta (blood) gets formed, then mamsa (muscle) (from rakta), from muscle medas (fat) gets formed, then asthi (bones) from fat; from bones; majja (bone marrow) gets formed, then the sukra i.e. semen (from bone marrow), from semen the garbha (embryo) gets formed

Tissue excreta

कफः पित्तं मलाः खेषु प्रस्वेदो नखरोम च॥६३॥

स्नेहोऽक्षित्वग्विषामोजो धातूनां क्रमशो मलाः।

Kapha, pitta, kha mala (the waste products of the external srotas) sweda (sweat),nakha (nails) and roma (body hair), fatty material of the eyes, skin and visa, and the ojas (essence of tissues) are the mala (wastes) of the tissues respectively.

Essence and excreta are two byproducts of digestion in tissues

प्रसादकिट्टौ धातूनां पाकादेवं द्विधर्च्छतः॥६४॥

The essence and waste are the byproducts of dhatus (tissues) are produced only after paka (transformation in the dhatus)

Continued cyclic nutrition of tissues

परस्परोपसंस्तम्भाद्धातु स्नेहपरम्परा।

केचिदाहुरहोरात्रात्षडहादपरे परे॥६५॥

मासेन याति शुक्रत्वमन्नं पाकक्रमादिभिः।

सन्तताभोज्य धातूनां परिवृत्तिस्तु चक्रवत्॥६६॥

The continuity of evolution of dhatus is because of the in time interrelationship (between the preceding and the succeeding dhatu) some (authorities) say, that the food gets converted to sukra (last dhatu) in one day; some say, after six days; and yet others after one month, after undergoing series of paka (digestion and transformation). The transformation of bhojya dhatus (nutrient tissues, small qualities of essence of the preceeding tissue) goes on uninterrupted like the (movement of) wheel

Contiuned cyclic nutrition of tissues

वृष्यादीनि प्रभावेण सद्यःशुक्रादिकुर्वते।

प्रायः करोत्यहोरात्रात्कर्मान्यदपि भेषजम्॥६७॥

Aphrodisiacs (drugs etc) by their special effects, produce sukra etc. immediately probably other medicines also produce their actions (effects) by a day and night

Uninterrupted distribution of rasa dhatu throughout the body

व्यानेन रसधातुर्हि विक्षेपो चितकर्मणा।

युगपत्सर्वतोऽजस्रं देहे विक्षिप्यतेसदा॥६८॥

Rasa dhatu itself gets circulated by the proper (normal) activity of vyanavata, throughout the body, being distributed, continuously, at all times.

Circulation of rasa

क्षिप्यमाणः खवैगुण्याद्रसः सज्जतियत्रसः।

तस्मिन्विकारं कुरुते खे वर्षमिवतोयदः॥६९॥

दोषाणामपि चैवं स्यादेकदेशप्रकोपणम्।

When the rasa dhatu thrown out into distribution (by vyana vayu) accumulates at any place due to the abnormality of the kha (srotas inside the dhatus) it gives rise to diseases in that place, just as clouds (stagnating at one place) bring about rain in the limited place where they are formed, like wise the dosas also undergo aggravation at any one place (due to stagnation).

Jatharagni pradhanayam – importance of gastric fire

अन्नभौतिक धात्वग्निकर्मेति परिभाषितम्॥७०॥

अन्नस्य पक्ता सर्वेषां पक्तॄणामधिकोमतः।

तन्मूलास्ते हि तद्वृद्धि क्षयवृद्धि क्षयात्मकाः॥७१॥

तस्मात्तं विधिवद्युक्तैरन्नपानेन्धनैर्हितैः।

पालयेत्प्रयतस्तस्य स्थितौ ह्यायुर्बलस्थितिः

॥७२॥

Thus was described the activities and functions of anna i.e. food, the agni (fire responsible for digestion of food known as kosthagni, jathragni, kayagni etc), the five bhutagni i.e. five elemental fire and the seven dhatvagnis i.e. seven tissue fire dhatu fire. Among all these digestive agencies, that which cooks the food (i.e jatharagni, kosthagni) is great (in strength), it is the root for them (bhutagni and dhatvagni); its increase and decrease make for their increase and decrease respectively; so it should be preserved with great effort, by the proper use of suitable foods and drinks which are the forms of advantageous fuel; on its normalcy depend the life span, and condition of strength of the person.

Jatharagni bheda – kinds of gastric fire

समः समाने स्थानस्थे विषमोऽग्निर्विमार्गगे।

पित्ताभिमूर्छिते तीक्ष्णो मन्दोऽस्मिन्कफपीडिते॥७३॥

It (jatharagni) is sama (normal) when samanavata is in its normal seat , it becomes visama (erratic) when samana vata is in the wrong path (or increases); it is tiksna (very powerful) when (the samanavata is) associated with pitta, and it is manda (weak) when (samanavata is) associated with kapha

Jatharagni bheda – kinds of gastric fire

समोऽग्निर्विषमस्तीक्ष्णो मन्दश्चैवं चतुर्विधः।

Thus, the agni is of four kinds – sama (normal), visama (erratic, unsteady), tiksna (strong) and manda (weak)

Qualities of four kinds of Jatharagni

यः पचेत्सम्यगेवान्नं भुक्तं सम्यक्समस्त्वसौ॥७४॥

विषमोऽसम्यगप्याशुसम्यग्वापि चिरात्पचेत्।

तीक्ष्णोवह्निः पचेच्चीघ्रमसम्यगपि भोजनम्॥७५॥

मन्दस्तु सम्यगप्यन्नमुपयुक्तं चिरात्पचेत्।

कृत्वास्यशोषाटोपान्त्र कूजनाध्मान गौरवम्॥७६॥

That which cooks (digests) the properly ingested food at the proper time is samagni (normal); that which cooks the food sometimes too quickly though it is improperly consumed at improper time, more in quantity etc and some times too slow, though the food is properly consumed (at proper time and in usual quantity), is visamagni; tiksnagni is that which digests the food too quick even though the food is improper (or more in quantity); mandagni is that which digests the food after a long time even though it is properly consumed (in terms of quality, quantity and time), producing dryness of the mouth, noise in the abdomen, gurgling of the intestines, flatulence, and heaviness.

Trividha Bala – three kinds of strength

सहजं कालजं युक्तिकृतं देहबलं त्रिधा।

तत्र सत्त्वशरीरोत्थं प्राकृतं सहजं बलम्॥७७॥

वयःकृतमृतूत्थं च कालजं युक्तिजं पुनः।

विहाराहारजनितं तथोर्जस्कर योगजम्॥७८॥

Are the three kinds of strength of the body among them, sahaja is that which is due to satvaguna, body having excellence of all the tissues (body having excellence of all the tissues and of the mind) and which is natural (born with, innate to the body); kalaja is that due to season and age of the person. Yuktija is that due to (acquired from) activities, foods and effect of rejuvenators (drugs etc)   

Trividha Desa – three Kinds of habitat

देशोऽल्पवारिद्रुनगोजाङ्गलः स्वल्परोगदः।

आनूपोविपरीतोऽस्मात्समः साधारणः स्मृतः॥७९॥

The country (region of land) which has less of water (resources), vegetation and mountains is (known as) jangala (arid, dry, desert like), it produces few diseases (in man and animals) anupa (marshy, wet, water logged) is its opposite sadharana (moderate) is that which is sama (moderate) neither too less nor too much of these features).

Dhatu Pramana – quantity of tissues

मज्जमेदो वसामूत्रपित्तश्लेष्म शकृन्त्यसृक्।

रसोजलं च देहेऽस्मिन्नेकैकाञ्जलिवर्धितम्॥८०॥

पृथक्स्वप्रसृतं प्रोक्तमोजो मस्तिष्करेतसाम्।

द्वावञ्जली तु स्तन्यस्य चत्वारो रजसः स्त्रियाः॥८१॥

समधातोरिदं मानं विद्याद्वृद्धिक्षयावतः॥८२अब्॥

The quantity of Majja (marrow), medas (fat), vasa (muscle fat) mutra (urine), pitta (kapha), shakrit (feaces) asrik (blood), rasa (plasma) and jala (water, body fluids like lymph) are in this body, one anjali more in their successive order (quantity of) ojas (essence of tissues), mastiska (brain matter) and retas (semen) are said to be of one prasrta each; in women stanya (breast milk) is two anjali and rajas (menstrual fluid) four anjali; these are the measures when they are normal and on these (measure) the increase and decrease (of dhatu and others) have to be understood.

Deha Prakrti – human constitution / temperament

शुक्रासृग्गर्भिणी भोज्य चेष्टा गर्भाशयर्तुषु।

यः स्याद्दोषोऽधिकस्तेन प्रकृतिः सप्तधोदिता॥८३॥

Depending on the dosa that is predominat in the sukra (semen or the spermatozoan to be specific), asrik (menstrual blood or the ovum to be more specific) at the time of their union, in the bhojya (food), cesta (activites) of the garbhini (pregnant woman), garbhasaya (uterus) and rtu (season) seven kinds of prakrti (human constitution) are produced

Vata Prakrti – Nervous temperament

विभुत्वादाशुकारित्वाद्बलित्वादन्यकोपनात्।

स्वातन्त्र्याद्बहुरोगत्वाद्दोषाणां प्रबलोऽनिलः॥८४॥

प्रायोऽत एव पवनाध्युषिता मनुष्या दोषात्मकाः स्फुटित धूसरकेशगात्राः।

शीतद्विषश्चलधृति स्मृतिबुद्धि चेष्टासौहार्द दृष्टिगतयोऽति बहुप्रलापाः॥८५॥

अल्पवित्तबलजीवितनिद्राः सन्नसक्त चलजर्जरवाचः।

नास्तिकाब हुभुजः सविलासा गीतहासमृगयाकलिलोलाः॥८६॥

मधुराम्लपटूष्णसात्म्यकाङ्क्षाः कृशदीर्घाकृतयः सशब्दयाताः।

नदृढा न जितेन्द्रिया न चार्या न च कान्तादयिताबहुप्रजावा॥८७॥

नेत्राणि चैषां खरधूसराणि वृत्तान्यचारूणि मृतोपमानि।

उन्मीलितानी वभवन्तिसुप्ते शैलद्रुमांस्तेगगनं चयान्ति॥८८॥

अधन्यामत्सराध्माताः स्तेनाः प्रोद्बद्धपिण्डिकाः।

श्वशृगालोष्ट्र गृध्रा खुकाकानूकाश्चवातिकाः॥८९॥

Because of properties like all pervading (in all the parts of the body), quick acting, strong (powerful), tendency to aggravate others (dosas, dhatus and malas etc)., acting independently, and producing many diseases vata is powerful among the doshas. Hence persons born with predominance of pavana (vata) generally have, hair and body which are cracked and dusky. They hate cold, are unsteady with respect to courage, memory, thinking, movements (walking and others), friendship, vision and gait; talk more and irrelevant, possess little of wealth, strength, span of life and sleep; their voice (speaking) is obstructed, interrupted, unsteady or harsh; they are atheists, gluttons, pleasure seeking; desires of music, humour, hunting or gambling; desirous of habituation to sweet, sour, salty and hot foods; are lean and tall in shape, produce sound during walking (kunkless in joints of leg); are not steadfast, cannot control their senses,, not civilised (brutish, impolite), not liked by women, not have many children; their eyes are dry, lustreless, round, unpleasant and resemble those of the dead; lids kept open while sleeping; they dream as though roaming on the mountains, dwelling on trees and moving in the sky; persons of vata prakriti are non-mananimous, bloated with jealousy, of stealing nature and having bulged calves; they resemble (in movements, mental behaviour etc) animals such as the dog, jackal, camel, vulture, rat and crow.

Pitta Prakrti – bilious temperament

पित्तं वह्निर्वह्निजं वायदस्मात्पित्तोद्रिक्तस्तीक्ष्ण तृष्णा बुभुक्षः।

गौरोष्णाङ्गस्ताम्र हस्ताङ्घ्रिवक्त्रः शूरोमानी पिङ्गकेशोऽल्परोमा॥९०॥ 

दयितमाल्यविलेपनमण्डनः सुचरितः शुचिराश्रितवत्सलः।

विभवसाहसबुद्धि बलान्वितो भवति भीषु गतिर्द्विषतामपि॥९१॥

मेधावी प्रशिथिलसन्धिबन्धमांसो नारीणाम् अनभिमतोऽल्पशुक्रकामः।

आवासः पलित तरङ्ग नीलिकानां भुङ्क्तेऽन्नं मधुरकषायतिक्तशीतम्॥९२॥

घर्मद्वेषीस्वेदनः पूतिगन्धिर्भूर्युच्चारक्रोधपानाशनेर्ष्यः।

सुप्तःपश्येत्कर्णिकारान्पलाशान्दिग्दाहोल्का विद्युदर्कानलांश्च॥९३॥

तनूनि पिङ्गानि चलानि चैषां तन्वल्पपक्ष्माणि हिमप्रियाणि।

क्रोधेन मद्येन रवेश्चभासा रागं व्रजन्त्याशुविलोचनानि॥९४॥

मध्यायुषो मध्यबलाः पिण्डिताः क्लेशभीरवः।

व्याघ्रर्क्ष कपिमार्जार यक्षानूकाश्चपैत्तिकाः॥९५॥   

Pitta is fire itself or born from fire; hence having predominance of pitta, have very keen (severe) thirst and hunger; are white (skin color) and warm in body; possess coppery red palms, soles and face; are brave and proud; have brown and scanty hair; are fond of good women, garlands, unguents (perfumes); ornaments, are of good behaviour, clean, affectionate to dependents, desirous of grandeur, adventure, have mental power (ability) and physical strength of facing fear and amenity; highly intelligent, possess very loose and lean joints and muscles; do not like women; possess less of semen and sexual desire; possess grey hair, wrinkles, and blue patches on the skin; consume food which is sweet, astringent, bitter and cold; hate sunlight (and heat), perspire heavily, emit bad smell from the body; expel feces frequently, have more anger, drinking (wine) eating, and jealousy; while in sleep dreams of flowers of karnikara (Pterospermum acerifolium) and palasa (Butea monosperma), forest fire, meteor, lightening / thunder bolt, bright sunrays and fire; their eyes are thin (small), brown, unsteady with thin and few eyelashes eye desirous of cold comfort, becoming red very quick by anger, drinking wine and exposure to sunlight. Persons of pitta prakriti are of medium life-span, medium strength,, highly learned, afraid of discomfort and resemble (in behaviour) animals like the tiger, bear, ape, cat and yaksa

Kapha Prakrti – kapha temperament

श्लेष्मासोमः श्लेष्मलस्तेन सौम्यो गूढस्निग्धश्लिष्ट सन्ध्यस्थिमांसः।

क्षुत्तृड्दुःखक्लेशघर्मैरतप्तो बुद्ध्यायुक्तः सात्त्विकः सत्यसन्धः॥९६॥

प्रियङ्गुदूर्वा शरकाण्ड शस्त्रगोरोचनापद्मसुवर्णवर्णः।

प्रलम्बबाहुः पृथु पीनवक्षामहाललाटो घननीलकेशः॥९७॥

मृद्वङ्गःसमसुविभक्त चारुदेहो बह्वोजोरतिरस शुक्रपुत्रभृत्यः।

धर्मात्मावदतिननिष्ठुरं च जातुप्रच्छन्नं वहतिदृढं चिरं च वैरम्॥९८॥

समदद्विरदेन्द्र तुल्ययातो जलदाम्भोधि मृदङ्ग सिंहघोषः।

स्मृतिमानभियोगवान्विनीतो न चबाल्येऽप्यतिरोदनोनलोलः॥९९॥      

तिक्तं कषायं कटुकोष्णरूक्षमल्पं सभुङ्क्ते बलवांस्तथापि।

रक्तान्तसुस्निग्ध विशाल दीर्घसुव्यक्त शुक्लासितपक्ष्मलाक्षः॥१००॥

अल्पव्याहारक्रोधपानाशनेहः प्राज्यायुर्वित्तो दीर्घदर्शीवदान्यः।

श्राद्धो गम्भीरः स्थूललक्षः क्षमावानार्यो निद्रालुर्दीर्घसूत्रः कृतज्ञः॥१०१॥

ऋजुर्विपश्चित्सुभगः सुलज्जो भक्तोगुरूणां स्थिरसौहृदश्च।

स्वप्नेसपद्मान्सविहङ्गमालांस्तोयाशयान्पश्यति तोयदांश्च॥१०२॥

ब्रह्मरुद्रेन्द्रवरुणतार्क्ष्य हंसगजाधिपैः।

श्लेष्मप्रकृतयस्तुल्यास्तथा सिंहाश्वगोवृषैः॥१०३॥

Kapha is soma (moon-like, cool,mild); hence persons of kapha prakrti are mild in nature, possess deep seated (not prominently seen), unctuous and well-knit joints and muscles; are not much troubled by hunger, thirst, unhappiness (troubles) strain and heat; endowed with intelligence, right attitude (righteous) and truthfulness; possess colour like that of piyangu (Callicarpa macrophylla), durva (Cynodon dactylon), sarakanda (Saccharum bengalense), sastra (steel weapon), gorocana (Extractum fellis bovini), padma (Nelumbo nucifera) or suvarna (gold); have long arms, big and elevated chest, big (wide) forehead, thick and blue hair; soft, even (symmetrical), well defined and good looking body, of great vigour, sexual prowess, desire in tastes; more of semen, children and attendants, are of righteous, benevolent nature, do not speak harsh and abusively; harbour enmity, concealed and deep for long time; their gait is like that of an elephant in rut; their voice like the roaring of clouds, ocean, mridanga (drum) or lion; possess good memory, perseverance, humbleness, do not weep much even in childhood; are not greedy (clinging to pleasures) consume food which is bitter, astringent, pungent, hot, dry and less in quantity, and still remain strong, their eyes are red at the angles, unctuous, wide, long, with well deigned white and black spheres (sclera and cornea) and with more eye lashes; have less of speech, anger, desire for drink (wine), food and activities; endowed with more life (longevity), wealth, foresight and munificence; have faith (in God, granting gifts, charity etc)., dignified, greatly charitable; of forgiving nature, civilised; very sleepy / drowsy, slow, grateful, straight forward, pleasant to look at, bashful, obedient to teachers (and elders) and of fast friendship; see reservoirs of water full of lotus and rows of birds and clouds in dream; persons of slesma prakrti are similar with Brahma, Rudra, Indra, varuna, taarksya (garuda) hamsa (swan) Gajadhipa (the elephant Airavata), lion, horse, cow and bull.

Birth constitution with predominance of two and three doshas

प्रकृतीर्द्वय सर्वोत्था द्वन्द्वसर्वगुणोदये।

शौचास्तिक्यादिभिश्चैवं गुणैर्गुणमयीर्वदेत्॥१०४॥

Persons born with predominance of two dosas and all three dosas possess features of two or all the dosas together likewise, by features such as cleanliness, belief in God etc. person are to be understood as belonging to the (category of the) gunas (the three mahaguna i.e. great qualities – Satva, Rajas and Tamas)

Vayah – age

वयस्त्वाषोडशाद्बालं तत्र धात्विन्द्रियौजसाम्।

वृद्धिरासप्ततेर्मध्यं तत्रावृद्धिः परं क्षयः॥१०५॥

The period up to sixteen years of age is balya (childhood) in which there occurs the increase of dhatu (tissues), indriya (sense, perception) and ojas (essence of tissues responsible for strength); the period up to seventy years in madhya (middle age, youth) in which there is no increase of tissues etc; after seventy years it is ksaya — decrease / depletion of tissues etc., or old age.

Sarira Laksana – physiognomy

स्वं स्वं हस्तत्रयं सार्धं वपुः पात्रं सुखायुषोः।

नचयद्युक्तमुद्रिक्तैरष्टाभिर्निन्दितैर्निजैः॥१०६॥

अरोमशासितस्थूल दीर्घत्वैः सविपर्ययैः।

Three and a half hastha (arms length) of one’s own arm is the height of the body suitable for a happy life. This measurement does not apply to those who belong to the eight kinds of nindita (unsatisfactory, abnormal, bad, physique) such as aloma (hairless), asita (black), sthula (big, obese) and dirgha (tall) with their opposite

Signs of organs and parts of the body depicting longevity and good health

सुस्निग्धामृदवः सूक्ष्मानैकमूलाः स्थिराः कचाः॥१०७॥

ललाटमुन्नतं श्लिष्टशङ्खमर्धेन्दुसन्निभम्।

कर्णौनीचोन्नतौपश्चान्महान्तौ श्लिष्टमांसलौ॥१०८॥

नेत्रेव्यक्तासितसिते सुबद्धघनपक्ष्मणी।

उन्नताग्रामहोच्छ्वासा पीनर्जुर्नासिकासमा॥१०९॥

ओष्ठौरक्तावनुद्वृत्तौम हत्यौनोल्बणेहनू।

महदास्यं घनादन्ताः स्निग्धाः श्लक्ष्णाः सिताः समाः॥११०॥

जिह्वारक्तायतातन्वीमांसलं चिबुकं महत्।

ग्रीवाह्रस्वाघनावृत्ता स्कन्धावुन्नतपीवरौ॥१११॥

उदरं दक्षिणावर्त गूढनाभिसमुन्नतम्।

तनुरक्तोन्नतनखं स्निग्धं आताम्रमांसलम्॥११२॥

दीर्घाच्छिद्राङ्गुलि महत्पाणिपादं प्रतिष्ठितम्।

गूढवंशं बृहत्पृष्ठं निगूढाःसन्धयोदृढाः॥११३॥

धीरःस्वरोऽनुनादीचवर्णः स्निग्धः स्थिरप्रभः।

स्वभावजं स्थिरं सत्त्वमविकारिविपत्स्वपि॥११४॥

उत्तरोत्तरसुक्षेत्रं वपुर्गर्भादिनीरुजम्।

आयामज्ञानविज्ञानैर्वर्धमानं शनैः शुभम्॥११५॥

इतिसर्वगुणोपेते शरीरे शरदांशतम्।

आयुरैश्वर्य इष्टाश्च सर्वेभावाः प्रतिष्ठिताः॥११६॥

Hair (on the head) should be smooth, soft, thin with only one root (each hair having its own root) and firm. The forehead should be high, with well joined temples and resemble the half moon (curved in front). The ears should be thin at the bottom and thick at the top, board sidewards, well joined and muscular. The eyes should have the white and black areas clearly visible, with well joined and thick eyelashes the nose should have elevated tip, capable of deep breathing, with straight bridge and even (neither depressed nor elevated) the lips should be red and not bulging out the lower jaw should be big but not protruding the mouth should be big, teeth should be thick (firm), unctuous, smooth, white and evenly placed the tongue be red, broad, and thin; the chin be muscular and big. The neck be short, thick and round; the shoulders bulged out and muscular. The abdomen should have the umbilicus with a right whirl, deep and bulged even. The nails should be thin, red, elevated, unctuous (smooth), coppery-red all over and muscular, the fingers should be long and separate.  The hands and feet should be big; the back should have the vertebral column concealed and big, the joints should be deep and firm the voice should be courageous (loud, commanding attention) and vibrating. The colour (of the skin) should be unctuous / greasy and with good lustre the mind (mental activities) should be natural, firm and not undergoing change even at times of danger (remaining steadfast even in trying situations) the body which has better features in successive states, than those described so far, which has remained disease free since birth, which possesses the (normal) height / breadth, intelligence (common sense), scholarship and growing slowly (and steadily) is auspicious. In such a body, endowed with all good features, the span of life is one hundred springs (years) full of wealth, desires and all other comforts clearly assured

Reasons for enumerating eight types of excellences

त्वग्रक्तादीनि सत्त्वान्तान्यग्र्याण्यष्टौ यथोत्तरम्।

बलप्रमाणज्ञानार्थं साराण्युक्तानिदेहिनाम्॥११७॥

सारैरुपेतः सर्वैः स्यात्परं गौरव संयुतः।

सर्वारम्भेषुचाशावान्सहिष्णुः सन्मतिः स्थिरः॥११८॥

Eight kinds of sara commencing with twak (skin), and rakta (blood) and ending with satva, each succeeding one better than its preceding, have been enumerated for determining (to obtain the knowledge of) the quantity of strength of the body the person endowed with all the sara is sure to earn great respect, hopeful of success in all his activities, capable of withstanding troubles, will be wise and steady

Qualities of people enriched with sattva, raja and tamo qualities

अनुत्सेकमादैन्यं च सुखंदुःखं च सेवते।

सत्त्ववांस्तप्यमानस्तुराजसो नैव तामसः॥११९॥

दानशीलदयासत्य ब्रह्मचर्यकृतज्ञताः।

रसायनानि मैत्री च पुण्यायुर्वृद्धिकृद्गणः॥१२०॥

The person with predominance of satva quality, experiences, enjoys happiness and misery without agitation and humility respectively; where as persons of rajas and tamas (gunas predominant) do not do so. Habit of charity, compassion, truthfulness, celibacy, gratitude, rejuvenation promoters (drugs, tonics), friendship (with all) and benevolent activities form the group which enhances the span of life

इति श्रीवैध्यपतिसिंहगुप्तसूनु श्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायाम् अष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां द्वितीये शारीरस्थानेऽङ्गविभागो नाम तृतीयोऽध्यायः॥३॥

Thus ends the chapter called Angavibhaga shareera; the third in Shareera Sthana of Astangahrdaya samhita composed by Srimad Vagbhata, son of Sri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.





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