The 1st chapter of Shareerasthanam of Ashtanga Hridayam is named as Garbhavakranti Adhyayah. This chapter deals with the explanation of development of the embryo.

The topics covered in this chapter include –

  • Garbhotpatti – formation of the embryo
  • Growth of embryo composed of subtle elements and soul,
  • Garbha lingotpatti karana (cause of determination of sex)
  • Cause for manifestation of multiple embryos and abnormal fetus
  • Rajodarsana – Menstruation
  • Benefits of mating and conceiving at the right age
  • Vikrita sukra artava – abnormalities of semen (sperm) and menstrual blood (ovum)
  • Shukra artava shuddhikarana – methods of purifying the contaminated semen and menstrual blood
  • Shuddha shukra-artava lakshanas – features of normal semen and menstrual blood
  • Preparation before physical union
  • Rutumati Laksana – features of the menstruating woman
  • Rtu kala – Period suitable for conception
  • Occurance of menstruation
  • Rtumati Carya – regimen of menstruating woman
  • Rtukala – period suitable for conception, fertile period
  • Garbhadana – ceremony concerned with conception
  • Procedure before mating
  • Mithuna – copulation
  • Sadhyo garbha linga – the signs of conception
  • Pumsavana vidhi – methods for begetting a male child
  • Method of instilling the Pumsavana vidhi drops into the nostrils
  • Garbhinicarya – care of the pregnant woman
  • Forbidden things for pregnant woman
  • Effect of dosha increasing foods on the fetus
  • Treating diseases of pregnant woman
  • Embryo taking different shapes in the second month
  • Garbhini laksana – features of the pregnant woman
  • Dauhrda – longings of pregnancy
  • Garbha vrddhi krama – foetal development
  • Fetal circulation and nourishment to fetus
  • Fetal development from fourth to seventh months
  • Treatment of striae and other symptoms produced in pregnant woman
  • Reason for instability of fetus in the eighth month of pregnancy
  • Beneficial diet and enemas in the eighth month of pregnancy
  • Time for delivery of child
  • Diet during ninth month of pregnancy
  • Suitable tampon and bath in pregnancy
  • Emphasis of use of fat from ninth month
  • Signs of male and female child in the womb
  • Signs of eunach in the womb and twin pregnancy
  • Sutika grha – maternity apartment / ward
  • Asanna prasava laksana – signs of impending delivery
  • Prasuti vidhi – management of labour
  • Avak garbha lakshana – signs of descent of fetus
  • Management of labor pain and encouraging the woman towards easy delivery of child
  • Garbhasanga – obstructed labour
  • Medicated oil for enema
  • Apara patana – delivery of the placenta
  • Makkalla – post-partum pain
  • Nursing the new born child
  • Sutikopacanara – care of the woman just delivered
  • Measures for woman unfit for oleation
  • Measures for woman unfit for oleation
  • Emphasis on proper care of the woman after child birth
  • Restrictions for the woman in the post partum phase

Pledge by the author (s)

अथातो गर्भावक्रान्ति शारीरं व्याख्यास्यामः।
इति ह स्माहुरात्रेयादयो महर्षयः।गध्यसूत्रे॥२॥
After having offered prayers to the God, henceforth we are going to explain the chapter pertaining to the development of the embryo. Thus pledge Atreya and other sages.

Garbhotpatti – formation of the embryo

शुद्धे शुक्रार्तवे सत्त्वः स्वकर्मक्लेशचोदितः।
गर्भःसम्पद्यते युक्तिवशादग्निरिवारणौ॥१॥
Satva (Atma or soul) impelled by the afflictions of his own past actions, entering into the (union of ) pure (unvitiated by the dosas), sukra (semen) and artava (menstrual blood- the female seed) gives rise to the formation of the embryo; in an orderly manner, just like the fire from two pieces of wood (rubbing together)

Growth of embryo composed of subtle elements and soul, nourished by mother

बीजात्मकैर्महाभूतैः सूक्ष्मैः सत्त्वानुगैश्च सः।
मातुश्चाहाररसजैः क्रमात्कुक्षौ विवर्धते॥२॥
The embryo formed from the causative and subtle mahabhutas (prthvi, ap, tejas, vayu and akasa i.e. earth, water, fire, air and ether respectivley) followed by (later associated with) satva (soul) gradually grows in the womb of the mother, nourished by the essence of the food of the mother

Simily to explain ‘the invisibility of the soul entering the womb’

तेजो यथाऽर्करश्मीनां स्फटिकेन तिरस्कृतम् ।
नेन्धनं दृश्यते गच्छत्सत्त्वो गर्भाशयं तथा ॥३॥
Just as the heat of the rays of the sun intercepted by the lens is not seen getting on to the fuel (blades of grass, pieces of wood or paper etc. on which it is focussed) kept underneath it, similarly is the entry of satva (atman-soul) into the womb (is not seen, but it can be known through the activities in the embryo)

Simily to explain ‘the invisibility of the soul entering the womb’

कारणानुविधायित्वात्कार्याणां तत्स्वभावता।
नानायोन्याकृतीःसत्त्वो धत्तेऽतो द्रुतलोहवत्॥४॥
The effect being similar to the cause, by nature, the satva (atman-soul) takes on different yoni (species, category of birth) and akrti (shapes) just like the melted metal.

Garbha lingotpatti karana (cause of determination of sex)

अत एव च शुक्रस्य बाहुल्याज्जायते पुमान्।
रक्तस्य स्त्री तयोः साम्ये क्लीबः
By the same doctrine (of the effect being similar to the cause) a male child will be produced when sukra (semen) is more, a female when rakta (menstrual blood) is more and a eunch (child neither definitely male nor definitely female but having features of both sex, in other words a hermaphrodite) when both are equal

Cause for manifestation of multiple embryos

शुक्रार्तवे पुनः॥५॥
वायुना बहुशो भिन्ने यथास्वं बह्वपत्यता।
Shukra (semen) and artava (menstrual blood) getting divided into many parts (after their union) by vata gives rise to multiple embryos.

Cause of formation of abnormal fetus

वियोनिविकृताकारा जायन्ते विकृतैर्मलैः॥६॥
Embryo dissimilar to the yoni (species kind) or of abnormal shapes- are produced by the abnormal (vitiated) dosas

Rajodarsana – Menstruation

मासि मासि रजः स्त्रीणां रसजं स्रवति त्र्यहम्।
वत्सराद्द्वादशादूर्ध्वं याति पञ्चाशतः क्षयम्॥७॥
In women, the rajas (menstrual blood) which is the product of rasa (the first dhatu), flows out of the body for three days, every month, after the age of twelve years and undergoes diminution by the age of fifty years

Benefits of mating at the right age

पूर्णषोडशवर्षा स्त्री पूर्णविंशेन सङ्गता।
शुद्धे गर्भाशये मार्गे रक्ते शुक्रेऽनिले हृदि॥८॥
वीर्यवन्तं सुतं
The women, who has completed sixteen years of age, mating with a man who has completed twenty years, the uterus, the channels, the blood (menstrual), semen, vata and hrdaya (the mind, in this context) all being pure (unvitiated), gives birth to a valiant son

Effects of conceiving at a young age

सूते ततो न्यूनाब्दयोः पुनः।
रोग्यल्पायुरधन्यो वा गर्भो भवति नैव वा॥९॥
On the other hand, if the age is less, the offspring will be either sick, of short life span, of inauspicious nature or there may be no formation of  fetus at all

Vikrita sukra artava – abnormalities of semen (sperm) and menstrual blood (ovum)


बीजासमर्थं रेतोऽस्रं स्वलिङ्गैर्दोषजं वदेत्॥१०॥

रक्तेन कुणपं श्लेष्मवाताभ्यां ग्रन्थिसन्निभम्।

पूयाभं रक्तपित्ताभ्यां क्षीणं मारुतपित्ततः॥११॥

कृच्छ्राण्य्एतान्यसाध्यं तु त्रिदोषं मूत्रविट्प्रभम्।

Rretas (semen) and asra (menstrual blood) known by the names such as that vitiated by doshas, that having the smell of a dead body, that formed into balls (masses, pellets), that resembling pus, that decreased in quantity, that resembling the waste (urine) and purisa (faces) in smell are incapable of producing the embryo. These are considered as dosaja (vitiated by the dosas) when specific features of each dosa are found; as kunapa (having cadaveric smell) when vitiated by rakta (blood); as granthi (pellet like) when vitiated by Slesma (kapha) and vata together; as puyabha (resembling pus) when vitiated by ratka (blood) and pitta together; as ksina (decreased) when vitiated by maruta (vata) and pitta together. All these are difficult (to purify) that vitiated by all the three dosas together, those having features of urine and faces are impossible (to purify)

Shukra artava shuddhikarana – methods of purifying the contaminated semen and menstrual blood

कुर्याद्वातादिभिर्दुष्टे स्वौषधं कुणपे पुनः॥१२॥

धातकीपुष्पखदिरदाडिमार्जुनसाधितम् ।

पाययेत्सर्पिरथवा विपक्वमसनादिभिः ॥ १३ ॥

पलाशभस्माश्मभिदा ग्रन्थ्याभे पूयरेतसि।

परूषकवटादिभ्यां क्षीणे शुक्रकरी क्रिया॥१४॥

स्निग्धं वान्तं विरिक्तं च निरूढमनुवासितम् ।

योजयेच्छुक्रदोषार्तं सम्यगुत्तरवस्तिभिः ॥ १४+१ ॥

संशुद्धो विट्प्रभे सर्पिर्हिङ्गुसेव्यादिसाधितम् ।

पिबेत् ग्रन्थ्यार्तवे पाठाव्योषवृक्षकजं जलम् ॥ १५ ॥

पेयं कुणपपूयास्रे चन्दनं वक्ष्यते तु यत् ।

गुह्यरोगे च तत्सर्वं कार्यं सोत्तरवस्तिकम् ॥ १६ ॥

Those (semen and ovum) vitiated by vata and other doshas (two dosas) should be treated with appropriate drugs; that having cadaveric smell, by making the person drink medicated ghee processed with, dhatakipuspa (flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa), khadira (Acacia catechu), dadima (Punica granatum) and arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) or with the drugs of asanadigana (vide chapter 15 of Sutrasthana). That semen which is pellet-like and semen mixed with pus (should be administered medicated ghee) processed with ash of palasa (Butea monosperma) and asmabheda (Bergenia ligulata) in those having depletion of semen ghee processed with parushaka (Grewia asiatica) and vata (Ficus benghalensis) etc herbs should be administered. Semen having the features of feces, be given a drink of medicated ghee processed with hingu (Ferula asafoetida), sevya (Vetiveria zizanioides) etc after (administration of) purifactory therapies. In the case of pellet like mentsrual blood, the woman should be administered to drink the decoction of patha (Cissampelos pareira), vyosa (mixture of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale) and vrksaka (Holarrhena antidysenterica) in case of menstrual blood having cadaveric smell or pus, the decoction of candana (Santalum album) should be given to drink, and all the therapies including uttarabasti (vaginal douche) prescribed for venereal diseases to be described later (in chapter 34 of Uttarasthana)

Shuddha shukra-artava lakshanas – features of normal semen and menstrual blood

शुक्रं शुक्लं गुरु स्निग्धं मधुरं बहलं बहु ।

घृतमाक्षिकतैलाभं सद्गर्भाय आर्तवं पुनः ॥ १७ ॥

लाक्षारसशशास्राभं धौतं यच्च विरज्यते ।

Sukra (semen) which is white in colour, heavy, unctuous, sweet, thick, more in quantity, resembling either ghee, honey or oil (of semen) is suitable for producing the embryo, the menstrual blood which resembles the juice of lac or the blood of a rabit, and when washed loses its color i.e. doesn’t leave back the stain on the cloth (is suitable for producing the embryo)

Preparation before physical union

शुद्धशुक्रार्तवं स्वस्थं संरक्तं मिथुनं मिथः ॥ १८ ॥

स्नेहैः पुंसवनैः स्निग्धं शुद्धं शीलितवस्तिकम् ।

नरं विशेषात्क्षीराज्यैर्मधुरौषधसंस्कृतैः ॥ १९ ॥

नारीं तैलेन माषैश्च पित्तलैः समुपाचरेत् ।

The man and woman who are having pure sukra (semen) and artava (menstrual blood) respectively, who are healthy, who are in love with each other, who are subjected to oleation through administration of medicated fats which enable one to beget desired children and purifactory therapies, who are administered enemas by practice. The man especially (nourished well) with the use of milk and ghee processed with drugs of sweet taste, The woman (nourished well) with the use of oil (of sesame / Sesamum indicum) , masa (black gram / Vigna mungo) and things (drugs etc) which increase pitta should (are ready for) undergo physical union

Rutumati Laksana – features of the menstruating woman

क्षामप्रसन्नवदनां स्फुरच्छ्रोणिपयोधराम् ॥ २० ॥

स्रस्ताक्षिकुक्षिं पुंस्कामां विद्यादृतुमतीं स्त्रियम् ।

The woman whose face is rundown (slightly emaciated) but pleasant (calm); has throbbing in the pelvis and breasts,eyes and abdomen slightly drooping down and who longs for a male (for company and copulation)should be understood as a menstruating woman

Rtu kala – Period suitable for conception

पद्मं सङ्कोचमायाति दिनेऽतीते यथा तथा ॥ २१ ॥

ऋतावतीते योनिः सा शुक्रं नातः प्रतीच्छति ।

Just as the lotus closes at the end of the day, so also, the yoni (uterus, vaginal tract) after the rtu kala (the period suitable for conception); thereafter she will not be receptive to sukra (semen)

Occurance of menstruation

मासेनोपचितं रक्तं धमनीभ्यामृतौ पुनः ॥ २२ ॥

ईषत्कृष्णं विगन्धं च वायुर्योनिमुखान्नुदेत् ।

The blood accumulated (inside the uterus) during the month, which is slightly black and of unusual smell, brought into the dhamanis (arteries) during the rtu (menstrual period), is expelled out by vayu (vata), through the orifice of the yoni (uterus and vaginal tract)

Rtumati Carya – regimen of menstruating woman

ततः पुष्पेक्षणादेव कल्याणध्यायिनी त्र्यहम् ॥ २३ ॥

मृजालङ्काररहिता दर्भसंस्तरशायिनी ।

क्षैरेयं यावकं स्तोकं कोष्ठशोधनकर्षणम् ॥ २४ ॥

पर्णे शरावे हस्ते वा भुञ्जीत ब्रह्मचारिणी ।

From the moment of appearance of the menstrual flow, for a period of three days, the woman should harbour only good thoughts, avoids bath and decorations, sleeps on mattress of darbha grass, eat little quantity of food prepared from milk and small barely; holding it (food) either in a leaf, earthen plate or the hands, in order to purify tha alimentary tract and to make herself thin (slightly emaciated). She should also observe celibacy (avoid sexual activities)

Regimen on the fourth day of menstruation

चतुर्थेऽह्नि ततः स्नाता शुक्लमाल्याम्बरा शुचिः॥२५॥

इच्छन्ती भर्तृसदृशं पुत्रं पश्येत्पुरः पतिम्।

On the fourth day, she should take bath, put on white garlands and dress, should remain clean, and see her husband first, harboring the desire for a son resembling her husband

Rtukala – period suitable for conception, fertile period

ऋतुस्तु द्वादश निशाः पूर्वास्तिस्रोऽत्र निन्दिताः ॥ २६ ॥

एकादशी च युग्मासु स्यात्पुत्रोऽन्यासु कन्यका ।

Rutu (period suitable for conception) is twelve nights (day and night); the first three days of it are insuspicious, so also the eleventh day, copulation on even days leads to birth of a son and on other (odd) days to a daughter

Garbhadana – ceremony concerned with conception

उपाध्यायोऽथ पुत्रीयं कुर्वीत विधिवद्विधिम् ॥ २७ ॥

नमस्कारपरायास्तु शूद्राया मन्त्रवर्जितम् ।

अवन्ध्य एवं संयोगः स्यादपत्यं च कामतः ॥ २८ ॥

The priest should perform the ritual of begetting a son, in accordance with the prescribed procedure (for persons of upper castes) and for sudras (persons of lower castes) by making them bow to Gods, without uttering sacred hymns; by doing this rite and after copulation, the woman will not remain sterile (the ritual will not become futile) and the couple will beget a son of their liking.

Garbhadana – ceremony concerned with conception

सन्तो ह्याहुरपत्यार्थं दम्पत्योः सङ्गतिं रहः ।

दुरपत्यं कुलाङ्गारो गोत्रे जातं महत्यपि ॥ २९ ॥

Wise men say, that in order to beget a (good) offspring, the couple should indulge in copulation in solitude (in a secluded place, free from embrassment by others) a bad offspring, though of reputed pedigree, is like fire to the family.

Visualizing noble people to beget desired good progeny

इच्छेतां यादृशं पुत्रं तद्रूपचरितांश्च तौ ।

चिन्तयेतां जनपदास्तदाचारपरिच्छदौ ॥ ३० ॥

Which-so-ever, the kind of son (in colour, appearance, conduct etc) the parents desire, they should always think of (horbor in their mind) the form and accomplishments (health, wealth, reputation etc) of persons who posses these (qualities) and conduct themselves accordingly

Procedure before mating

कर्मान्ते च पुमान् सर्पिःक्षीरशाल्योदनाशितः ।

प्राग्दक्षिणेन पादेन शय्यां मौहूर्तिकाज्ञया ॥ ३१ ॥

आरोहेत् स्त्री तु वामेन तस्य दक्षिणपार्श्वतः ।

तैलमाषोत्तराहारा तत्र मन्त्रं प्रयोजयेत् ॥ ३२ ॥

आहिरसि आयुरसि सर्वतः प्रतिष्ठासि धाता त्वां दधातु विधाता त्वां दधातु ब्रह्मवर्चसा भवेति ॥

ब्रह्मा बृहस्पतिर्विष्णुः सोमः सूर्यस्तथाश्विनौ भगोऽथ मित्रावरुणौ वीरं ददतु मे सुतम् ॥ ३३ ॥

After the end of the ceremony (ritual of begetting a male offspring) the man who has partaken food consisting of ghee, milk and boiled rice, should climb on the bed, keeping his right foot first, and at the auspicious moment; the woman should climb next, keeping her left foot first, from the right side (of her husband), after partaking food consisting chiefly of sil (of Sesame – Sesamum indicum) and masa (black gram – Vigna mungo). Then after the following holy hymn should be recited (by the husband) – “O Lord you are the procurer, are the life, you are present everywhere, may dhata (god who is the giver) bestow (me good), may vidhata (god who writes our fate) bestow the brahmavarcas (divine radiance), may Brahman, Brhaspati,Visnu, Soma, Surya, Asvin-twins, Bhaga, Mitra and Varuna grant me a valiant son”

Mithuna – copulation

सान्त्वयित्वा ततोऽन्योन्यं संविशेतां मुदान्वितौ ।

उत्ताना तन्मना योषित्तिष्ठेदङ्गैः सुसंस्थितैः ॥ ३४ ॥

तथा हि बीजं गृह्णाति दोषैः स्वस्थानमास्थितैः ।

Next, the couple should engage themselves in copulation appeasing each other with love-play and keeping themselves cheerful the woman should lie in supine position, attentive (intent on receiving the male seed) and keeping the parts of her body (especially the genitals) poised well (convenient and suitable position), in such a state, when the dosas are in their normal abodes, she can receive the male seed

Sadhyo garbha linga – the signs of conception

लिङ्गं तु सद्योगर्भायायोन्या बीजस्य सङ्ग्रहः ॥ ३५ ॥

तृप्तिर्गुरुत्वं स्फुरणं शुक्रास्राननुबन्धनम् ।

हृदयस्पन्दनं तन्द्रा तृड्ग्लानीरोमहर्षणम् ॥ ३६ ॥

The signs of conception are – implantation of the seed in the yoni (uterus and vaginal tract), a sense of contentment, heaviness and throbbing (in the lower abdomen and vaginal tract), cessation of flow of semen and blood (menstrual), throbbing in the heart, thirst, fatigue and horripilations

Pumsavana vidhi – methods for begetting a male child

अव्यक्तः प्रथमे मासि सप्ताहात्कललीभवेत् ।

गर्भः पुंसवनान्यत्र पूर्वं व्यक्तेः प्रयोजयेत् ॥ ३७ ॥
बली पुरुषकारो हि दैवमप्यतिवर्तते ।

In the first month, during the first seven days, the embryo becomes a kalala (jelly mass) is unmanifest (undetermined in sex); hence pumsavana (methods to beget a male offspring) should be done before manifestation (differentiation of sex), because powerful (potent) purusakara (actions of the present life) will even overcome Daiva (effects of actions of previous lives)

Pumsavana vidhi – methods for begetting a male child

पुष्ये पुरुषकं हैमं राजतं वाऽथवाऽऽयसम् ॥ ३८ ॥

कृत्वाऽग्निवर्णं निर्वाप्य क्षीरे तस्याञ्जलिं पिबेत् ।

An icon of man prepared from either gold, silver, or even iron should be heated to red colour and immersed in milk; one anjali (about 75ml) of this milk should be consumed during pusya constellation

Pumsavana vidhi – methods for begetting a male child

गौरदण्डमपामार्गं जीवकर्षभसैर्यकान् ॥ ३९ ॥

पिबेत्पुष्ये जले पिष्टानेकद्वित्रिसमस्तशः ।

Gauradanda, apamarga (Achyranthes aspera), jivaka (Microstyllis wallichi), rsabhaka (Microstyllis musfera) and Sairyaka (Barloria prionitis), either individually or in combinations of two, three or all together should be made into a nice paste with water and consumed during pusya constellation

Method of instilling the Pumsavana vidhi drops into the nostrils

क्षीरेण श्वेतबृहतीमूलं नासापुटे स्वयम् ॥ ४० ॥

पुत्रार्थं दक्षिणे सिञ्चेद्वामे दुहितृवाञ्छया ।

The woman, herself should instill drops of juice of roots of brhati bearing white flowers (Solanum xanthocarpum) made with milk, into her right nostril if she desires a son and into the left nostril, if she desires a daughter

Method of instilling juice of Lakshmana and other herbs for Pumsavana vidhi

पयसा लक्ष्मणामूलं पुत्रोत्पादस्थितिप्रदम् ॥ ४१ ॥

नासयाऽऽस्येन वा पीतं वटशुङ्गाष्टकं तथा ।

ओषधीर्जीवनीयाश्च बाह्यान्तरुपयोजयेत् ॥ ४२ ॥

Juice of roots of Laksmana (Ipomoea marginata) prepared with milk, instilled into the nose or consumed by mouth, bestows male progeny and its safety (retention) sprouts of vata, eight in number also act similarly drugs of Jivaniya group (vide chapter 15 of Sutrasthana) should be used both externally and internally

Garbhinicharya – care of the pregnant woman

उपचारः प्रियहितैर्भर्त्रा भृत्यैश्च गर्भधृक् ।

नवनीतघृतक्षीरैः सदा चैनामुपाचरेत् ॥ ४३ ॥

 The woman, who has conceived should be looked after affectionately by her husband and attendants, supplied with things she likes and which are good for health, when these are followed the embryo becomes stable, she should also be always served (nourished) with more of butter, ghee and milk

Forbidden things for pregnant woman

अतिव्यवायमायासं भारं प्रावरणं गुरु ।

अकालजागरस्वप्नं कठिनोत्कटकासनम् ॥ ४४ ॥

शोकक्रोधभयोद्वेगवेगश्रद्धाविधारणम् ।

उपवासाध्वतीक्ष्णोष्णगुरुविष्टम्भिभोजनम् ॥ ४५ ॥

रक्तं निवसनं श्वभ्रकूपेक्षां मद्यमामिषम् ।

उत्तानशयनं यच्च स्त्रियो नेच्छन्ति तत्त्यजेत् ॥ ४६ ॥

तथा रक्तस्रुतिं शुद्धिं वस्तिमामासतोऽष्टमात् ।

एभिर्गर्भः स्रवेदामः कुक्षौ शुष्येन्म्रियेत वा ॥ ४७ ॥

The pregnant woman should avoid excess of sexual activities, exertion carrying heavy loads, heavy coverings, keeping awake or sleeping at improper time, sitting on hard seats, and on heels; grief, anger, fear, emotions, suppression of urges of the body and controlling of desires, fasting, long distance walk, intense, hot, heavy (hard for digestion) and constipating foods, wearing red cloth, peeping into deep pits or wells, alcoholic drinks, eating meat, lying with face upwards and any such acts which elder women forbid. Similarly, blood letting, purifactory therapies and enema therapies should be avoided till the eight month by these (activities), the embryo will be either expelled premature, dries up inside or even dies.

Effect of dosha increasing foods on the fetus

वातलैश्च भवेद्गर्भः कुब्जान्धजडवामनः ।

पित्तलैः खलतिः पिङ्गः श्वित्री पाण्डुः कफात्मभिः ॥ ४८ ॥

By indulgence in foods which increase vata, the offspring becomes either a hunchback, blind, lazy (inactive) or dwarf by foods which increase pitta, it will be either bald head or brown eyed; by foods which increase kapha, it will be either of white skin in or of pandu (yellowish –white)

Treating diseases of pregnant woman

व्याधींश्चास्या मृदुसुखैरतीक्ष्णैरौषधैर्जयेत् ।

Her diseases should be treated with drugs (or therapies) which are soft, easy to consume and mild (in action)

Jelly mass of embryo taking different shapes in the second month

द्वितीये मासि कललाद्घनः पेश्यथवार्बुदम् ॥ ४९ ॥

पुंस्त्रीक्लीबाः क्रमात्तेभ्यः

During the second month, from the kalala state (jelly mass) are produced the ghana (hard mass), pesi (muscle) and arbuda (ant-hill) to be born as a male, female or eunuch (hermaphrodite), respectively

Garbhini laksana – features of the pregnant woman

तत्र व्यक्तस्य लक्षणम् ।

क्षामता गरिमा कुक्षेर्मूर्छा छर्दिररोचकः ॥ ५० ॥

जृम्भा प्रसेकः सदनं रोमराज्याः प्रकाशनम् ।

अम्लेष्टता स्तनौ पीनौ सस्तन्यौ कृष्णचूचुकौ ॥ ५१ ॥

पादशोफो विदाहोऽन्ये श्रद्धाश्च विविधात्मिकाः ।

The features of the pregnant woman during this month are feeling of emaciation heaviness of the abdomen fainting vomiting loss of taste (or appetite) more of yawning and salivation debility appearance of lines of hair (especially over the abdomen) desire for sour things enlargement of the breasts with little amount of milk and black colour of the nipples others (authorities) include swelling of the feet, heart-burn and desires (longings) of different kinds

Dauhrda – longings of pregnancy

मातृजं ह्यस्य हृदयं मातुश्च हृदयेन तत् ॥ ५२ ॥

सम्बद्धं तेन गर्भिण्या नेष्टं श्रद्धाविमाननम् ।

देयमप्यहितं तस्यै हितोपहितमल्पकम् ॥ ५३ ॥

श्रद्धाविघाताद्गर्भस्य विकृतिश्च्युतिरेव वा ।

Since its (foetal) heart is a maternal organ in origin, and is connected with the heart of the mother, the desire (longing) of the pregnant woman should not be dishonoured (refused, denied); even if unsuitable (unhealthy) things should be given to her mixed with healthy ones and in small quantity; refusal of the longing may lead to abnormalities in the fetus or its premature expulsions.

Garbha vrddhi krama – foetal development

व्यक्तीभवति मासेऽस्य तृतीये गात्रपञ्चकम् ॥ ५४ ॥

मूर्धा द्वे सक्थिनी बाहू सर्वसूक्ष्माङ्गजन्म च ।

सममेव हि मूर्धाद्यैर्ज्ञानं च सुखदुःखयोः ॥ ५५ ॥

During the third month, the five parts of the body become manifest, viz, the head, two legs, and two arms, and also all the minor parts simultaneously with the head etc, the knowledge of pleasure and pain also

Fetal circulation and nourishment to fetus

गर्भस्य नाभौ मातुश्च हृदि नाडी निबध्यते ।

यया स पुष्टिमाप्नोति केदार इव कुल्यया ॥ ५६ ॥

A tube connects the umbilicus of the fetus and the heart of the mother from which it ( fetus) derives nourishment just like a cornfield from the aqueduct.

Fetal development from forth to seventh months

चतुर्थे व्यक्तताङ्गानां चेतनायाश्च पञ्चमे ।

षष्ठे स्नायुसिरारोमबलवर्णनखत्वचाम् ॥ ५७ ॥

सर्वैः सर्वाङ्गसम्पूर्णो भावैः पुष्यति सप्तमे ॥ ५८अब् ॥

In the fourth mouth, all the parts become manifest (clearly), and in the fifth month, the cetana (consciousness, life activity) in the sixth, the tendons, veins, hair, strength, color, nails and skin (become manifest), in the seventh, it ( fetus) is developed in all it parts and well nourished

Symptoms produced when the doshas pushed by the fetus gets lodged in the heart of the mother

गर्भेणोत्पीडिता दोषास्तस्मिन् हृदयमाश्रिताः ॥ ५८च्द् ॥

कण्डूं विदाहं कुर्वन्ति गर्भिण्याः किक्किसानि च ॥ ५८एf ॥

The dosas, being pushed up by the  fetus and getting localised in the heart (of the mother) produce itching, vidaha (burning sensation) and also kikkisa (striae gravidarum) in the pregnant woman

Treatment of striae and other symptoms produced in pregnant woman

नवनीतं हितं तत्र कोलाम्बुमधुरौषधैः ।

सिद्धमल्पपटुस्नेहं लघु स्वादु च भोजनम् ॥ ५९ ॥

चन्दनोशीरकल्केन लिम्पेदूरुस्तनोदरम् ।

श्रेष्ठया वैणहरिणशशशोणितयुक्तया ॥ ६० ॥

अश्वघ्नपत्रसिद्धेन तैलेनाभ्यज्य मर्दयेत् ।

पटोलनिम्बमञ्जिष्ठासुरसैः सेचयेत् पुनः ॥ ६१ ॥

दार्वीमधुकतोयेन मृजां च परिशीलयेत् ।

In that condition, ingestion of butter processed with juice of kola (Ziziphus jujube) and drugs of sweet taste is beneficial; the food prepared with little quantity of salt and fats, easy to digest and sweet things, thighs, breasts and abdomen should be anointed with paste of chandana (Santalum album) and usira (Vetiveria zizanioides), or with the paste of srestha (triphala – fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Emblica officinalis) prepared with the blood of black antelope, fawn or rabbit. The body should be anointed with the oil processed with leaves of asvaghna (karvira – Nerium indicum) and then massaged, followed by pouring of decoction of Patola (Trichosanthes dioica), Nimba (Azadirachta indica), Manjistha (Rubia cordifolia) and Surasa (Ocimum sanctum). Then after given a bath in water processed with Darvi (Berberis aristata) and Madhuka (Madhuca longifolia)

Reason for instability of fetus in the eighth month of pregnancy

ओजोऽष्टमे सञ्चरति मातापुत्रौ मुहुः क्रमात् ॥ ६२ ॥

तेन तौ म्लानमुदितौ तत्र जातो न जीवति ।

शिशुरोजोऽनवस्थानान्नारी संशयिता भवेत् ॥ ६३ ॥

During the eight month, ojas travels between the mother and the child alternatively; because of this, they become fatigued or connected respectively; and life born during this month, does not survive, and life of the woman is also doubtful, because of the instability of Ojas in the child

Beneficial diet and enemas in the eighth month of pregnancy

क्षीरपेया च पेयात्र सघृताऽन्वासनं घृतम् ।

मधुरैः साधितं शुद्ध्यै पुराणशकृतस्तथा ॥ ६४ ॥

शुष्कमूलककोलाम्लकषायेण प्रशस्यते ।

शताह्वाकल्कितो वस्तिः सतैलघृतसैन्धवः ॥ ६५ ॥

During the month peya (thin gruel) prepared with milk and added with ghee should be partaken by the mother, anuvasana (lubricating enema) with the ghee processed with drugs of sweet taste is ideal likewise enema with the decoction of dry mulaka, kola amla, mixed with paste of Satahva, oil, ghee and saindhava is ideal to remove the old feces

Time for delivery of child

तस्मिंस्त्वेकाहयातेऽपि कालः सूतेरतः परम् ।

वर्षाद्विकारकारी स्यात्कुक्षौ वातेन धारितः ॥ ६६ ॥

Anything, after even one day after this month, is the time for the birth of the child; if it ( fetus) is retained inside the abdomen for a year by Vata leads to abnormalities (disorders for both the mother and the child)

Diet during ninth month of pregnancy

शस्तश्च नवमे मासि स्निग्धो मांसरसौदनः ।

बहुस्नेहा यवागूर्वा पूर्वोक्त चानुवासनम् ॥ ६७ ॥

During the ninth month food mixed with fat (ghee) along with juice of meat is ideal or yavagu (thick gruel) mixed with more of fat and anuvasana (lubricating enema) mentioned earlier

Suitable tampon and bath in pregnancy

तत एव पिचुं चास्या योनौ नित्यं निधापयेत् ।

वातघ्नपत्रभङ्गाम्भः शीतं स्नानेऽन्वहं हितम् ॥ ६८ ॥

Then onwards a diaper (soaked in medicated ghee mentioned earlier) should be kept in her vagina daily water processed with leaves which mitigate vata and then cooled is suited for bath frequently

Emphasis of use of fat from ninth month

निःस्नेहाङ्गी न नवमान्मासात्प्रभृति वासयेत् ।

From the ninth month onwards she should never remain wihout fat (anointhing the body with medicated oil)

Signs of male and female child in the womb

प्राग्दक्षिणस्तनस्तन्या पूर्वं तत्पार्श्वचेष्टिनी ॥ ६९ ॥

पुन्नामदौर्हृदप्रश्नरता पुंस्वप्नदर्शिनी ।

उन्नते दक्षिणे कुक्षौ गर्भे च परिमण्डले ॥ ७० ॥

पुत्रं सूतेऽन्यथा कन्यां या चेच्छति नृसङ्गतिम् ।

नृत्यवादित्रगान्धर्वगन्धमाल्यप्रिया च या ॥ ७१ ॥

The woman who gets milk fist in her right breast prefers that side (right side) for all her activities who develops longings of things of masculine name (and character), and greatly interested in enquiring about them always who sees masculine objects in dreams whose abdomen is more elevated on the right side and appears to be round will give birth to a male child she who exhibits opposite features, who desire the company of (or copulation) males, who is fond of dance instrumental music vocal music perfumes and garlands will deliver a female child

Signs of eunach in the womb and twin pregnancy

क्लीबं तत्सङ्करे तत्र मध्यं कुक्षेः समुन्नतम् ।

यमौ पार्श्वद्वयोन्नामात्कुक्षौ द्रोण्यामिव स्थिते ॥ ७२ ॥

With the mixture of both the features she gives birth to a enuch (hermophrodite) in the case her abdomen is found more elevated in its centre in case of twin  fetus, the abdomen appears bulged in both its sides and depressed in the middle, like a trough

Sutika grha – maternity apartment / ward

प्राक् चैव नवमान्मासात् सा सूतिगृहमाश्रयेत् ।

देशे प्रशस्ते सम्भारैः सम्पन्नं साधकेऽहनि ॥ ७३ ॥

तत्रोदीक्षेत सा सूतिं सूतिकापरिवारिता ।

Eeven earlier to the ninth month, the woman should reside in the sutikagrha (maternity apartment) situated at an auspicious place, equipped with all necessary things, entering it on a day ensuring success; residing there she should anticipate delivery, accompained with women skilled in delivery (midwives)

Asanna prasava laksana – signs of impending delivery

अद्यश्वःप्रसवे ग्लानिः कुक्ष्यक्षिश्लथता क्लमः ॥ ७४ ॥

अधोगुरुत्वमरुचिः प्रसेको बहुमूत्रता ।

वेदनोरूदरकटीपृष्ठहृद्वस्तिवङ्क्षणे ॥ ७५ ॥

योनिभेदरुजातोदस्फुरणस्रवणानि च ।

आवीनामनु जन्मातस्ततो गर्भोदकस्रुतिः ॥ ७६ ॥

When the delivery is due to take place today or its next day, (the woman delelops) fatigue, looseness of the abdomen and eyes, exhaustion (without physical activity), feeling of heaviness in the lower parts, loss of appetite (or taste), more of salivation, increased urination (frequency), pain / discomfort in the thighs, abdomen, waist, back, (region of the) heart, bladder and groins, pain in the vaginal tract such as tearing, continuous, pricking and pulsating and discharge of fluid, followed by the onset of avi (labour pains) and discharge of fluid from the womb (show)

Prasuti vidhi – management of labour

अथोपस्थितगर्भां तां कृतकौतुकमङ्गलाम् ।

हस्तस्थपुन्नामफलां स्वभ्यक्तोष्णाम्बुसेचिताम् ॥ ७७||

पाययेत्सघृता पेयां तनौ भूशयने स्थिताम् ।

आभुग्नसक्थिमुत्तानामभ्यक्ताङ्गीं पुनः पुनः ॥ ७८ ॥

अधो नाभेर्विमृद्नीयात्कारयेज्जृम्भचङ्क्रमम् ।

Next , the woman-in-labour should be protected by performance of auspicious rites, made to hold a fruit bearing a masculine name in her hands, anointed with oil and given bath in wam water; should be given a drink of peya (thin gruel) mixed with ghee. Then, she is made to lie on a bed spread on the floor, with her legs folded (at the knee) and kept supine: her body should be anointed with oil again and again, parts below the umbilicus massaged and told to yawn and do brisk walking

Avak garbha lakshana – signs of descent of fetus

गर्भः प्रयात्यवागेवं तल्लिङ्गं हृद्विमोक्षतः ॥ ७९ ॥

आविश्य जठरं गर्भो वस्तेरुपरि तिष्ठति ।

By these, the  fetus makes an easy descent, its signs are; getting detached from the (region of) heart and occupying the abdomen the fetus stays just above the urinary bladder

Management of labor pain and encouraging the woman towards easy delivery of child

आव्योऽभित्वरयन्त्येनां खट्वामारोपयेत्ततः ॥ ८० ॥

अथ सम्पीडिते गर्भे योनिमस्याः प्रसारयेत् ।

मृदु पूर्व प्रवाहेत बाढम् आप्रसवाच्च सा ॥ ८१ ॥

हर्षयेत्तां मुहुः पुत्रजन्मशब्दजलानिलैः ।

प्रत्यायान्ति तथा प्राणाः सूतिक्लेशावसादिताः ॥ ८२ ॥

When the avi (labour pain) starts manifesting in quick succession, the woman should be made to lie on a cot, when the  fetus is being squeezed out, her vagina should be dilated (by application of oil) she should be asked to bear down mildly in the beginning and forcebly afterwards till delivery; she should be made happy often uttering words such as “son is born”; by water (drinking, sprinkling etc) and air (fanning) by these her life (strength) returns and she gets relieved of the exhaustion of delivery

Garbhasanga – obstructed labour

धूपयेद्गर्भसङ्गे तु योनिं कृष्णाहिकञ्चुकैः ।

हिरण्यपुष्पीमूलं च पाणिपादेन धारयेत् ॥ ८३ ॥

सुवर्चलां विशल्यां वा जराय्वपतनेऽपि च ।

कार्यमेतत्तथोत्क्षिप्य बाह्वोरेनां विकम्पयेत् ॥ ८४ ॥

कटीमाकोटयेत्पार्ष्ण्या स्फिजौ गाढं निपीडयेत् ।

तालुकण्ठं स्पृशेद्वेण्या मूर्ध्नि दद्यात्स्नुहीपयः ॥ ८५ ॥

भूर्जलाङ्गलिकीतुम्बीसर्पत्वक्कुष्ठसर्षपैः ।

पृथग्द्वाभ्यां समस्तैर्वा योनिलेपनधूपनम् ॥ ८६ ॥

कुष्ठतालीशकल्कं वा सुरामण्डेन पाययेत् ।

यूषेण वा कुलत्थानां बाल्बजेनासवेन वा ॥ ८७ ॥

In case of obstruction of delivery of the  fetus, the vagina should be fumigated by using the peel of a black snake, the root of hiranyapuspi (Euphorbia thomsoniana) should be tied to the hands and feet or the roots of suvarcala (Gynandropsis pentaphylla) or visalya (Gloriosa superb); this may be done even in non-delivery of the jarayu (foetal covering / placenta) then she should be lifted up by the arms and shaken, her waist hit hard by (her own) heels, buttocks squeezed hard (by others), palate and throat tickled with plait of hair, milky sap of snuhi (Euphorbia nerifolia) applied over the scalp, paste of either anyone, two or all of Bhurja (Betula utilis), Langalika (Gloriosa superb), Tumbi (Lagenaria siceraria / Asteracantha longifolia), sarpatwak (snake peel), Kustha (Saussurea lappa) and Sarsapa (Brassica juncea) should be applied to the vagina and fumigated; paste of Kustha (Saussurea lappa) and Talisa (Abies webbiana), along with suramanda (supernatant fluid of beer) or with yusa (soup) of Kulattha (Dolichos biflorus) or with asava of Balvaja (fermented infusion of Balva?) should be given to drink

Medicated oil for enema

शताह्वासर्षपाजाजीशिग्रुतीक्ष्णकचित्रकैः ।

सहिङ्गुकुष्ठमदनैर्मूत्रे क्षीरे च सार्षपम् ॥ ८८ ॥

तैलं सिद्धं हितं पायौ योन्यां वाऽप्यनुवासनम् ।

Medicated oil prepared with (decoction and paste of) Satahva (Anethum sowa), Sarsapa (Brassica juncea), Ajaji (Cuminum cyminum), Sigru (Moringa oleifera), Tiksnaka (?), Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Hingu (Ferula asafetida), Kustha (Saussurea lappa)and Madana (Randia dumetorum) added with cows urine, milk and oil of Sarsapa (Brassica juncea) should be used for anuvasana (fat enema) through the rectum or vagina (douche)

Apara patana – delivery of the placenta

शतपुष्पावचाकुष्ठकणासर्षपकल्कितः ॥ ८९ ॥

निरूहः पातयत्याशु सस्नेहलवणोऽपराम् ।

तत्सङ्गे ह्यनिलो हेतुः सा निर्यात्याशु तज्जयात् ॥ ९० ॥

कुशला पाणिनाऽक्तेन हरेत्क्लुप्तनखेन वा ।

मुक्तगर्भापरां योनिं तैलेनाङ्गं च मर्दयेत् ॥ ९१ ॥

A decoction enema prepared from Satapuspa (Anethum sowa), Vaca (Acorus calamus), Kustha (Saussurea lappa), kana (Piper longum) and Sarsapa – Brassica juncea (used for preparing decoction and paste) mixed with oil and salt (rock salt – saindhava) and administered (through the rectum) causes quick delivery of the apara (placenta) vata is the cause for its obstruction and by winning over it (vata) it (the placenta) comes out quickly experts, can even remove it (placenta) by either hands (introduced into the vagina) smeared with oil and with the nails pared (cut close) after the apara (placenta) has come out, the vagina and the entire body, should anointed with oil and massaged

Makkalla – post-partum pain

मक्कल्लाख्ये शिरोवस्तिकोष्ठशूले तु पाययेत् ।

सुचूर्णितं यवक्षारं घृतेनोष्णजलेन वा ॥ ९२ ॥

धान्याम्बु वा गुडव्योषत्रिजातकरजोऽन्वितम् ।

In case, the disease known as makkala (characterized by) pain in the head, region of the urinary bladder and the abdomen manifest, the woman should be administered (to consume) Yavaksara (alkali of whole plant of Hordeum vulgare), nicely powdered, mixed with ghee or warm water or sour gruel prepared from corns and mixed with powder of guda (jaggery), Vyosa (combined powder of Piper longum, Piper nigrum and Zingiber officinale) and Trijataka (combined powder of Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Elettaria cardamomum and Cinnamomum tamala)

Nursing the new born child

अथ बालोपचारेण बालं योषिदुपाचरेत् ॥ ९३ ॥

atha bālopacāreṇa bālaṃ yoṣidupācaret || 93 ||

The new born child should then be nursed by women, by adopting regimen of baby care (described in chapter 1 of Uttarasthana)

Sutikopacanara – care of the woman just delivered

सूतिका क्षुद्वती तैलाद्घृताद्वा महतीं पिबेत् ।

पञ्चकोलकिनीं मात्रामनु चोष्णं गुडोदकम् ॥ ९४ ॥

वातघ्नौषधतोयं वा तथा वायुर्न कुप्यति ।

विशुध्यति च दुष्टास्रं द्वित्रिरात्रमयं क्रमः ॥ ९५ ॥

If the woman who has delivered feels hungry, she should be given oil or ghee containing the (powder of) Pancakola, in the maximum dose (as prescribed in oleation therapy) followed by warm water in which molasses is dissolved – or decoction of drugs which mitigate vata तोयं वा वातघ्न औषध – toyaṃ vā vātaghna auṣadha By these the vata does not get aggravated and the bad blood becomes purified. This regimen should be continued for two or three days

Measures for woman unfit for oleation

स्नेहायोग्या तु निःस्नेहममुम् एव विधिं भजेत् ।

पीतवत्याश् च जठरं यमकाक्तं विवेष्टयेत् ॥ ९६ ॥

If the woman is unfit for oleation therapy, the same regimen (as described above) should be adopted without the use of fats (oil or ghee) for drinking after she has consumed the drink, her abdomen should be anointed with yamaka (mixture of two fats, oil and ghee) and tied with a band of cloth

Measures for woman unfit for oleation

जीर्णे स्नाता पिबेत्पेयां पूर्वोक्तौषधसाधिताम् ।

त्र्यहादूर्ध्वं विदार्यादिवर्गक्वाथेन साधिता ॥ ९७ ॥

हिता यवागूः स्नेहाढ्या सात्म्यतः पयसाऽथवा ।

सप्तरात्रात्परं चास्यै क्रमशो बृंहणं हितम् ॥ ९८ ॥

द्वादशाहेऽनतिक्रान्ते पिशितं नोपयोजयेत् ।

After the digestion (of the oil consumed) she should take a bath and given a drink of peya (thin gruel) processed with drugs mentioned earlier from the third day onwards, yavagu (thick gruel) processed with decoction of drugs of Vidaryadi gana (vide character 15 of Sutrasthana) added with more of fat (ghee) should be given as found suitable; or yavagu prepared from milk should be given gradually after seven days gradual introduction of bulk promoting foods to her is ideal meat should no be used earlier to the lapse of twelve days.

Emphasis on proper care of the woman who has delivered the child

यत्नेनोपचरेत्सूतां दुःसाध्यो हि तदामयः ॥ ९९ ॥

गर्भवृद्धिप्रसवरुक्क्लेदास्रस्रुतिपीडनैः ।

The woman who has delivered should be nursed very carefully, for her diseases are difficult to treat because of the exhaustion caused by growth of the  fetus, its birth, pain (of delivery), discharge of fluid and blood (in large quantities)

Restrictions for the delivered woman to be followed until the onset of next menstrual cycle

एवं च मासादध्यर्धान्मुक्ताहारादियन्त्रणा ॥ १०० ॥

गतसूताभिधाना स्यात्पुनरार्तवदर्शनात् ॥ १००ऊअब् ॥

In this manner, the woman should remain under control, with the use of foods etc. described so far; for a period of one and half months, or till she gets over being called “the woman who has delivered” and till the appearance of (next) menstruation

इति श्रीवैध्यपति सिंहगुप्तसूनु श्रीमद्वाग्भटविरचितायाम् अष्टाङ्गहृदयसंहितायां द्वितीये शारीरस्थाने गर्भावक्रान्तिर्नाम प्रथमोऽध्यायः॥

Thus ends, the chapter called Garbhavakranti, the first in Sarira sthana of Asthana Hrdaya Samhitha composed by Srimad Vagbhata son of Sri Vaidyapati Simhagupta.

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